Characteristics of personal names in English fairy tales .

Characteristics of personal names in English fairy tales .

Тип работы: 
Предмет: Иностранные языки и языкознание
Год выполнения: 
6 500руб.
№ работы: 1426

Chapter 1. The definition of Proper Names in English
1.1 Definition and Classification of Proper Names
2. Translation Strategies of Proper Names
2.1. Proper Names and Children’s Literature
2.2 Translation of Proper Names in Literature for Children and Youngsters
3. The Descriptive theory of proper names
3.1 Different Descriptive theories of translation of proper names
3.2 The procedures of translation of proper names by Lincoln Fernandes
4. Descriptive Semantics
4.1 Strategies and types of translation
Chapter 2. The translation of the Proper Names on the basis of Fairy Tales.
Supplement material

The translation of proper names is one of the most challenging activities any translator faces. While working on children’s literature, the translation is especially complicated since proper names usually have various allusions indicating sex, age, geographical belonging, history, specific meaning, wordplay and cultural connotations.
The goal of this article is to draw attention to the strategic choices for the translation of proper names in children’s literature. First, the article presents the theoretical considerations that deal with different aspects of proper names in literary works and the issue of their translation. Second, the translation strategies provided by the translation theorist Eirlys E. Davies used for this research are explained. Then, the discussion proceeds to the quantitative analysis of the translated proper names with an emphasis on providing and explaining numerous examples. The research has been carried out on popular fantasy books translated from English and German. After analyzing the strategies of preservation, localization, transformation and creation, the strategy of localization has proved to be the most frequent one in all translations.
In the linguistic literature there are a number of studies on behalf of its own, its differences from a household name, to explore the features of a proper name in fiction.
In this paper we follow the definition of a proper name as a word or phrase, the specific purpose of which is the designation of the individual items irrespective of their signs, i.e. without establishing a correspondence between the properties designated by the subject and the value (or values) that has (or had) the word or phrase.
Investigating the genre of fairy tales, we found that the author, subject to the principles of logic, gives his character such a proper name, which, as in the folded description, encrypted hidden meanings of his character, deeds, actions, relationships with other characters. Implementation of the hidden meanings embedded in its own name, as is entry into the narrative fabric of fairy tales by a kind of mysterious crossword decoding logic.When proper names appear in a literary text, we can evaluate their presence having in mind different aspects.
The use of special names, the use of meaningful names, interpretation of names, the contribution to characterization, allusions in proper names, text function or effect they create, etc. Most of us may simply think that proper names are usually not translated; however, after we compare translations with the source texts, we can observe that translators do various sorts of things with proper names. Thus, the main aim of the present article is to analyze the translation strategies that are applied for the translation of proper names trying to find out the ways how to deal with these items and to highlight some tendencies that could be useful for any translator. The theoretical considerations deal with different aspects of proper names in literary texts aimed at children’s audience and the issues of their translation.
The relevance of the research topic is determined by the growing interest in the study of proper name and its relationship with the fantastic reality of the author's fairy tale. The study is based on the hypothesis that the proper name is included in the narrative structure of fairy tales, forming a crossword logic that represents a special kind of / sort of intellectual activity of man.
Three groups of translation strategies were distinguished: preservation (when proper names are left without any changes or translated directly), localization (when proper names are adapted phonologically and morphologically and gender endings are added) and transformation and creation (when proper names have gone through vivid modifications). Since there is no clear distinction between transformation and creation, these two strategies are analyzed as one group. Examples of addition, omission and globalization have not been found; so they are not discussed in the article.
Among the most pressing issues currently under discussion in linguistics, are formed in one or another ethnic group image of the world, and its human and national-specific components, the variety of its constituent partial patterns that function as components of global education; features of their similarities and differences and the nature of their relationship
Domestic and foreign linguists consider the national picture of the world, as reflected in language, in terms of cognitive linguistics, presenting it as a set of characteristics for a given language concepts, developing issues related to the ability of the individual subsystems of language representation of a person to accumulate about the world.
Ethnolinguistic and Cultural Studies of the last two decades devoted to the reconstruction of both the religious and mythological ideas and the individual fragments of the world picture specific people and the reconstruction of the spiritual culture of the ethnic group in general.
The exceptional role of folklore as a source material, the most complete form of preserved archaic folk world, led to their use in order to study the actual language of folklore individual elements of the folk world view, the specific features of the linguistic world in synchronic and diachronic aspects.
The relevance of this work is motivated by the fact that at the present stage in linguistics is not a generalized description of image of the world, accumulated in the language of English folk tales. The complexity of a linguistic description of the full-scale fantastic picture of the world related to the peculiar genre of English folk tale, its structural mismatch, story-shaped, artistic characteristics adopted in the national folklore standard; the existence of a diffuse form, combining the features of the works of various genres of folklore.

Translation has many challenges, one of which is the problem of translating proper nouns , a term used here interchangeably with the term 'proper names,' adequately from one language to another. The focus of this study lies within translation of personal names, which are a subclass of proper nouns. Notwithstanding the fact that a challenge that translators often encounter in their work comes from personal names, this paper presents some translation techniques proposed by various researchers in this regard. It should be mentioned that this paper does not intend to prescribe any special rules.
Nowadays there are thousands of proper names. In the world there are many companies and companies, products and substances, plants and animals, all of them have their own proper names and in modern linguistics the problem of translation of proper names from English into Russian plays the rather important role.
Albert Peter Vermes (2003) asserts that: "The translation of proper names has often been considered as a simple automatic process of transference from one language into another, due to the view that proper names are mere labels used to identify a person or a thing. Contrary to popular views, the translation of proper names is a non-trivial issue, closely related to the problem of the meaning of the proper name."
Personal names in some cases can reveal some information by themselves. The translator's knowledge of such information can sometimes be very effective in the translation process. In this regard, The Columbia Encyclopedia states that "English surnames developed in the late Middle Ages and, apart from patronymics (Adams, Jefferson), have a variety of origins; they come from places (Lincoln, Garfield) from trades (Tyler, Taylor), from personal traits (Stout, Black), and from the calendar (Noel, May)." In this respect, Mike Campbell (n.d.) states that most surnames fall into four categories: a) they are derived from given names such as Johnson, and Williams; b) they refer to the person's occupation like Clark, and Wright; c) they are derived from the location where the bearer lives; d) surnames can de derived from nicknames such as White, Young.
The frequency of use of the translational techniques has been put under the research. We’ve seen nine basic translational methods and all of them were used during different translational processes. Some of them are used more commonly, some of them are used less commonly and some are not used nowadays at all because of being rendered obsolete by translators due to the global shifts in cultural and social translational paradigm.
The more time passes the simpler the process of translation of proper names becomes. It’s almost impossible to see any creativity in modern fantasy translations. The wordplay is lost sometimes along with the witty remarks are hidden inside.
Being familiar with the culture, translators sometimes can infer some implied information such as gender, nationality, race, class, or religion from personal names. It is clear that translators must be familiar with culture of both the source and target languages, since awareness of these culture-bound names can lead to the most appropriate translation. Based on the foregoing information, it is significant to stress that the influence of culture on translation of personal names is undeniable.

Having briefly discussed some of the translation procedures in this respect, the author strongly recommends that whatever strategies translators use, especially in scientific texts, they should mention the original name with the SL alphabets in the footnotes or endnotes in order to facilitate further research for readers in the target language.

Characteristics of personal names in English fairy tales .

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